The Biology of the Earth's Rocks and Minerals


  • Muhammad Ijaz Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Javed Department of Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan


Biology, Rocks, Minerals, Bio mineralization, Geo micro biology, Ecosystems, Geological History, Interdisciplinary


This interdisciplinary study delves into the often-overlooked relationship between biology and the Earth's rocks and minerals. By exploring the intricate connections between life forms and geological materials, we uncover the profound influence that biology has had on shaping the composition, structure, and even the geological history of our planet. From bio mineralization to geo micro biology, this paper investigates the dynamic interplay between the living and non-living components of Earth's ecosystems, shedding light on the profound implications for both the natural world and our understanding of Earth's history.